《淨土三經往生文類》,親鸞聖人之日文著述,83歲時(1255)作略本,85歲時增補成廣本。


【13】第20願願文+成就文

「植諸德本」願文,《大經》言︰「設我得佛,十方眾生,聞我名號,繫念我國,植諸德本,至心回向,欲生我國,不果遂者,不取正覺。」 

同本異譯《無量壽如來會》言︰「若我成佛,無量國中,所有眾生,聞說我名,以己善根,回向極樂,若不生者,不取菩提。」 

願(二十願)成就文,《大經》言︰「其胎生者,所處宮殿,或百由旬,或五百由旬。各於其中,受諸快樂,如忉利天上,亦皆自然。爾時慈氏菩薩白佛言︰世尊何因何緣,彼國人民,胎生化生?佛告慈氏︰若有眾生,以疑惑心,修諸功德,願生彼國,不了佛智、不思議智、不可稱智、大乘廣智、無等無倫最上勝智,於此諸智,疑惑不信;然猶信罪福,修習善本,願生其國。此諸眾生,生彼宮殿,壽五百歲。常不見佛,不聞經法,不見菩薩聲聞聖眾,是故彼國土,謂之胎生。(乃至)彌勒當知,彼化生者,智慧勝故;其胎生者,皆無智慧。(乃至)彌佛告彌勒︰譬如轉輪聖王,有七寶牢獄,種種莊嚴,張設床帳,懸諸繒幡。若諸小王子,得罪於王,輒內彼獄中,繫以金鎖。(乃至)彌佛告彌勒︰此諸眾生,亦復如是,以疑惑佛智故,生彼胎宮。(乃至)彌若此眾生,識其本罪,深自悔責,求離彼處。彌勒當知,其有菩薩,生疑惑者,為失大利。」(略抄)

又《無量壽如來會》言︰「佛告彌勒︰若有眾生,隨於疑悔,積集善根,希求佛智,普遍智,不思議智,無等智、威德智、廣大智,於自善根,不能生信。以此因緣,於五百歲,住宮殿中。(乃至)阿逸多!汝觀殊勝智者,彼因廣慧力故,受彼化生,於蓮華中,結跏趺坐。汝觀下劣之輩,不能修習,(乃至)諸功德故,無因奉事無量壽佛。是諸人等,皆為昔緣疑悔所致。(乃至)佛告彌勒︰如是如是,若有隨於疑悔,種諸善根,希求佛智,乃至廣大智,於自善根,不能生信。由聞佛名,起信心故,雖生彼國,於蓮華中,不得出現。彼等眾生,處華胎中,猶如園苑宮殿之想。」(乃至略出)

光明寺(善導)釋云︰「含華未出,或生邊界,或墮胎宮。」

憬興師云︰「由疑佛智,雖生彼國,而在邊地,不被聖化事;若胎生宜之重捨。」

以此等真文,謂之「難思往生」,應知。

 

康元二年三月二日書寫之

愚禿親鸞八十五歲


 

 

【13】 植諸徳本の願文、『大経』(上)にのたまはく、「たとひわれ仏を得んに、十方の衆生、わが名号を聞きて、念をわが国に係けて、もろもろの徳本を植ゑて、心を至し回向してわが国に生れんと欲はん。果遂せずは、正覚を取らじ」と。[文]

 

 同本異訳の『無量寿如来会』(上)にのたまはく、「もしわれ成仏せんに、無量国のうちの所有の衆生、わが名を説かんを聞きて、おのれが善根をもつて極楽に回向せん。もし生れずは、菩提を取らじ」と。[文] 願(第二十願)成就の文、『経』(大経・下)にのたまはく、「それ、胎生のものの処するところの宮殿、あるいは百由旬、あるいは五百由旬なり。おのおのそのなかにしてもろもろの快楽を受くること、忉利天上のごとし。またみな自然なり。そのときに慈氏菩薩(弥勒)、仏にまうしてまうさく、〈世尊、なんの因なんの縁にか、かの国の人民、胎生・化生なる〉と。仏、慈氏に告げたまはく、〈もし衆生あつて、疑惑の心をもつてもろもろの功徳を修し、かの国に生れんと願じて、仏智・不思議智・不可称智・大乗広智・無等無倫最上勝智を了らずして、この諸智において疑惑して信ぜず。しかるになほ罪福を信じて善本を修習して、その国に生れんと願ぜん。このもろもろの衆生、かの宮殿に生れて寿五百歳ならん。つねに仏を見たてまつらず、経法を聞かず、菩薩・声聞・聖衆を見ず、このゆゑにかの国土、これを胎生といふ。{乃至}弥勒まさに知るべし。かの化生のものは智慧勝れたるがゆゑに。その胎生のものはみな智慧なし〉。{乃至}

 

仏、弥勒に告げたまはく、〈たとへば転輪聖王に七宝の牢獄あり、種種に荘厳し、床帳を張設し、もろもろの繒幡を懸けたらん、もしもろもろの小王子、罪を王に得たらん、すなはちかの獄のうちに内れて、繋ぐに金の鎖をもつてせんがごとし〉。{乃至}仏、弥勒に告げたまはく、〈このもろもろの衆生、またまたかくのごとし、仏智を疑惑するをもつてのゆゑにかの胎宮に生ず。{乃至}もしこの衆生、その本の罪を識りて、深くみづから悔責してかの処を離れんと求めよ。{乃至}弥勒、まさに知るべし、それ菩薩あつて疑惑を生ずるは大利を失ふとす〉」と。{略抄}

 

 また、『無量寿如来会』(下)にのたまはく、「仏、弥勒に告げたまはく、〈もし衆生あつて、疑悔に随うて善根を積集して、仏智・普遍智・不思議智・無等智威徳智広大智を希求せんに、みづからの善根において、信を生ずることあたはず。この因縁をもつて五百歳において宮殿のうちに住すと。{乃至}阿逸多(弥勒)、なんぢ殊勝智のものを観そなはすに、かの広慧の力によるがゆゑに、かの化生を受く。蓮華のなかにおいて結跏趺坐す。なんぢ下劣の輩を観そなはすに、{乃至}もろもろの功徳を修習することあたはざるがゆゑに。因なくして無量寿仏に奉事せん、このもろもろの人等、みなむかし疑悔せんによつて致すところとするなり〉と。{乃至} 仏、弥勒に告げたまはく、〈かくのごとし、かくのごとし。もし疑悔に随うてもろもろの善根を種ゑて、仏智乃至広大智を希求することあらん。みづからの善根において信を生ずることあたはず、仏の名を聞きて信心を起すによるがゆゑに、かの国に生るといへども、蓮華のうちにおいて出現することを得ず、かれらの衆生、華胎のうちに処すること園苑宮殿の想のごとし〉」。{乃至略出}

 

 光明寺(善導)の釈(定善義)にいはく、「華に含んでいまだ出でず。あるいは辺界に生じ、あるいは宮胎に堕す」と。{以上}

 

 憬興師(述文賛・下)のいはく、「仏智を疑ふによつて、かの国に生るといへども、辺地にあつて聖化の事を被らず。もし胎生せばよろしくこれを重く捨つべし」と。{以上}

 

これらの真文にて、難思往生と申すことを、よくよくこころえさせたまふべし。

 


  南無阿弥陀仏 南無阿弥陀仏 南無阿弥陀仏

 

   [康元二年三月二日これを書写す。]                         [愚禿親鸞八十五歳] 


 

 

(13)

 The Vow of cultivating the root of virtue is stated in the Larger Sutra:

If, when I attain Buddhahood, the sentient beings of the ten quarters, on hearing my Name, should place their thoughts on my land, cultivate the root of all virtues, and direct their merits with sincere mind desiring to be born in my land, and yet not ultimately attain it, may I not attain the supreme enlightenment.

The Sutra of the Tathagata of Immeasurable Life, another translation of the same sutra, states:

If, when I become Buddha, all the sentient beings of the countless lands should hear my Name being expounded and, taking it as their own root of good, direct their merits toward the land of bliss, and yet not attain birth, may I not attain enlightenment.

The passage declaring the fulfillment of this Vow is stated in the [LargerSutra:

“Those who attain womblike birth dwell in palaces a hundred yojanas or five hundred yojanas in extent. Within, they each enjoy pleasures like those of Trāyastriṃśa heaven, all of which arise naturally.”

 Then Bodhisattva Maitreya said to the Buddha, “World-honored one, what cause or condition leads to the distinction between womblike birth and transformative birth among the human beings of that land?”

 The Buddha said to Maitreya, “Suppose there are sentient beings who, with minds full of doubts, aspire to be born in that land through the practice of various meritorious acts; unable to understand the Buddha-wisdom, the all-encompassing wisdom of the Mahayana, the unequaled, peerless, and supremely excellent wisdom, they doubt these wisdoms and do not entrust themselves. And yet, believing in [the recompense of] evil and good, they aspire to be born in that land through cultivating the root of good. Such sentient beings will be born in the palace of that land, where for five hundred years they will never see the Buddha, hear the dharma of the sutras, or see the sacred host of bodhisattvas and sravakas. Hence, in that land this is known as womblike birth. . . . Know, Maitreya, that those of transformative birth are superior in wisdom; that those of womblike birth lack wisdom. . . .”

 The Buddha said to Maitreya, “Consider the case of the noble cakravartin-king, who possesses a prison embellished with the seven precious substances. It is adorned in manifold ways, furnished with a canopied bed, and hung with many silken banners. If young princes commit offenses against the king, they are imprisoned there and bound with gold chains. . . .”

 The Buddha said to Maitreya, “These sentient beings are precisely like that. Because they doubt the Buddha’s wisdom, they are born in a womb-palace. . . . If these sentient beings become aware of their past offenses and deeply repent, they desire to leave that place. . . . Know, Maitreya, that if even bodhisattvas embrace doubt, they lose the great benefit.”

Further, the Sutra of the Tathagata of Immeasurable Life states:

The Buddha said to Maitreya, “Suppose there are sentient beings who, being possessed of doubts, accumulate roots of good and seek to realize the Buddha-wisdom, the peerless wisdom, the majestically virtuous wisdom, the vast, all-encompassing wisdom. In their attachment to their roots of good, they cannot entrust themselves [to Buddha-wisdom]. For this reason, they dwell within the palace for five hundred years. . . As you see, Ajita, those of excellent wisdom have received transformative birth in lotus flowers of enlightenment through the power of vast wisdom and sit with legs crossed and soles upturned. When you see the inferior, . . . they have failed in their practice o meritorious acts. For this reason, without having fulfilled the true cause [of birth], they serve the Buddha of immeasurable life. All such people have come to be so through the past condition of embracing the faults of doubt. . . .”

 The Buddha said to Maitreya, “It is so, it is so. They may, being possessed of doubts, accumulate roots of good and seek to realize [various kinds of] wisdom, from Buddha-wisdom to the vast, all-encompassing wisdom; in their attachment to their roots of good, they cannot entrust themselves [to Buddha-wisdom]. Although they give rise to trust through hearing the Buddha’s Name and thus are born in that land, they cannot emerge from within the lotus bud. These sentient beings, enclosed within the flower-womb, feel as though they were within a garden or palace.”

The Commentary of Shan-tao, the Master of Kuang-ming temple, states:

They are enclosed within the flower and cannot emerge, or are born in the borderland, or fall into the womb-palace.

Master Kyeong-heung states:

It is because of doubting the Buddha-wisdom that, although born in that land, you remain in the borderland and are unable to receive the Buddha’s guidance. If you are to receive womblike birth, you must definitely part from it.

 

14

You should well understand noncomprehensible birth taking into consideration these passages expressing the true teaching.

Namu-amida-butsu, Namu-amida-butsu, Namu-amida-butsu

 

Copied on the second day of the third mont,

Kōgen 2 [1257]

GUTOKU SHINRAN

At age 85


 

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